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This article attempts to show descriptively how the fulfillment of verses 4-31 of Matthew 24 have been interpreted in Dispensational tradition.

These verses are part of the eschatological Sermon of Jesus, also known as the Olivet Discourse. This sermon is recorded in all Synoptic Gospels (Mat. 24-25; Mark 13; Luk. 21). However, the focus of this article lies only in verses 4-31 of chapter 24 of Matthew’s Gospel.

From verses 4-28, Jesus has revealed the events that lead up to His coming, presented in verses 29-31. Especially in verses 4-14, we find nine signs:

  1. false Christs, 24:4–5;
  2. wars and rumors of wars, 24:6–7;
  3. famines, 24:7;
  4. pestilence, 24:7;
  5. earthquakes, 24:7;
  6. many martyrs, 24:8–10;
  7. false prophets, 24:11;
  8. increasing evil and loss of fervent love, 24:12; and
  9. worldwide preaching of the gospel of the kingdom, 24:13–14.

Dispensationalists have debated whether these signs reported in Matthew 24 refer to the period of the Church or to the period of the Tribulation, also known as the seventieth week of Daniel. Therefore, there are, basically, two groups: 1) those who understand that some of these signals relate to the time of the Church; 2) those who understand that all signs refer to the time of the Tribulation.

 

1) Present and Future Signs

In his commentary on Matthew, John Nelson Darby understand that verses 4-14 will be fulfilled during the period of the testimony of the disciples, which encompasses the period of church:

“The time of the disciples’ testimony is characterized by false Christs and false prophets among the Jews; persecution of those who render testimony, betraying them to the Gentiles. But there is yet something more definite with regard to those days. There would be false Christs in Israel. There would be wars, famines, pestilences, earthquakes. They were not to be troubled: the end would not be yet. These things were only a beginning of sorrows. They were principally outward things. There were other events which would bring them into greater trial, and test them more thoroughly—things more from within.”[2]

Cyrus I. Scofield has a double vision. For him, the signs referred to Tribulation events. However, they also have an interpretation for the present age:

 “Verse 4 to 14 have a double interpretation: They give (1) the caracter of the age… (2) But the same answer (4-14) applies in a specific way to the end of the age, viz. Daniel’s seventieth week… All that has characterized the age gathers into awful intensity at the end”.[3]

Lewis S. Chafer had a similar view, that some signs apply to this era. For him the present era will be marked by signs that are described through verse 8. Therefore, in his view, the signs of the Tribulation period are presented in verses 9-26.[4] This view was followed by dispensational theologian H. A. Ironside who understood que verses 4-8 “give general characteristics of the age, and that verses 9–14 emphasize the particular signs of the end of the age.”[5]

The theologian John Walvoord, following a similar view of Chafer and Ironside, stated:

In general, these signs [4-14] have been at least partially fulfilled in the present age and have characterized the period between the first and second coming of Christ. They should be understood as general signs rather than specific signs that the end is near. As stated in verse 8, these are the beginning rather than the end of the sorrows which characterize the close of the age.[6]

Taken as a whole, the opening section, ending with Matthew 24:14, itemizes general signs, events, and situations which mark the progress of the age, and, with growing intensity, indicate that the end of the age is approaching. These signs, however, by their very characteristics and because they have occurred throughout the present age, do not constitute a direct answer to the question of “the sign” of the coming of the Lord.[7]

This line of thinking was also advocated by the dispensationalist theologian James F. Rand:

“The course of the present age is seen in Matthew 24:4–8. The church is not in view but only the deceptive features of the age which might confuse and deceive the disciples as they wait for the coming of the Lord. These “beginning of sorrows” are religious and physical phenomena which will be greatly intensified during the seventieth week of Daniel. Hence their appearance might lead some to believe that the Messiah and the end of the age had come.”[8]

“Accordingly Matthew 24:9–28 is the description of the great tribulation, verses 15–28  describing the last half of Daniel’s seventieth week (Dan 9:26–27) when the tribulation shall reach its full intensity.”[9]

Larry Pettegrew says that the events described in verses 4-14 would typify the era from the time of the Lord’s prophecy up to the middle of the seven-year tribulation.[10]

Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum says that verses 4-6 refer to common events throughout the church age; verses 7-8, to events that will mark the end of the church age; verses 9-14, to the first half of the Tribulation and verses 15-26 speaks of the second half of Tribulation.[11]

John Philips understands that verses 4-14 refer to this age and relate to the time of the Gentiles. From verse 15, Jesus speaks specifically to the Jews of the Tribulation Period. For this reason, in his commentary, he seeks to show that, to some extent, we are seeing to increase the number and intensity of the signs described in verses 4-14.[12]

Matthew 24 - 1

The Application of signs to the Present Time

Because these signs are interpreted as signs of the present age (vs. 4-14), usually, the authors of this line of thought try to relate some of these signs to our time, showing the increased in the rate and intensity of their occurrence. For example, John Walvoord comments the signs this way:

“Accordingly, through the centuries, there have been many false religious leaders or false Christs. War, famine, and pestilence are still with us. There is some evidence that there is an increase in earthquakes, and, of course, Scriptures record that the greatest earthquake of all time will occur just before the second coming of Christ (Rev 16:18–20). There have been many martyrs through the centuries and probably more in the twentieth century than even in the first century. False prophets and false teachings have plagued the church and the world. The increase in iniquity and loss of fervent love are all too evident in the world, and are detailed, for instance, in Christ’s message to the churches of the first century in Revelation 2–3.”[13]

 

2) Future Signs

This second group of authors can be further divided into three subcategories. This division does not clearly appear in their works, but it becomes noticeable as we look at them with more attention.

 

a) Futurist Chronological View

The most common view among modern dispensational authors have been that the signs reported in verses 4-31 are all futures, i.e., they will occur during the Tribulation Period. They also see a chronological sequence in the verses 4-31 of Matthew 24.

This view was advocated by Dwight Pentecost. He denies that verses 4-31 of Matthew 24 deal with any sign during the church age: “Consistency of interpretation would seem to eliminate any application of this portion of Scripture to the church or the church age, inasmuch as the Lord is dealing with the prophetic program of Israel.”[14] For Pentecost, verses 4-8 deal with the first half of the Tribulation. Verses 9-26 deal with the second half of the Tribulation.[15]

Dr. Charles Ryrie also followed a futurist view.  However, for him, the verses 4-14 list characteristics of the first half of the tribulation period, whereas verses 15–28 deal with the second half.”[16]

Merrill Unger says that these events (4-26) refer to Israel during the Tribulation, not the Church period. Following a similar view to that of Pentecost, he says that the verse 4-8 deal with half of the Tribulation while verses 9-26 deal with the second half.[17]

Robert L. Thomas does not specify the chronology of verses, but he is very emphatic in saying that they address specific signals to the time of the Tribulation (Daniel’s seventieth week) and not the church time: “The signs given in M att 24:4-28 are within Daniel’s seventieth week and indicate the nearness of Jesus’ return to earth as described in Matt 24:29- 31.7”[18]

Louis A. Barbieri, in the Bible Knowledge Commentary, says: In this section (Matt. 24:4-8) He described the first half of the seven-year period preceding His second coming.”[19]  While the verses from 9 speak of the second half of the Tribulation.[20]

Thomas Ice is one of the most emphatic advocates of futuristic vision, so he says:

“I believe that Matthew 24:4–41 refers to the seven-year period (Dan. 9:24–27) that many commonly call the tribulation. The tribulation is divided in half by the abomination of desolation, mentioned by Jesus in verse 15.  Thus, verses 4–14 refer to the first half of the tribulation and are parallel to the first five seal judgments found in Revelation 6.”[21]

Dr. Ice denies that the increase in the intensity or frequency of the signs described in verses 4-14 apply to this time:

“If the inter-advent age view is the correct interpretation, then it would mean that wars, earthquakes, famines, and the appearance of false Christs would be constantly on the increase as we approach the tribulation period.  However, if these items are references to the first half of the tribulation, then wars, earthquakes, famines, and false Christs during any part of the church age would not constitute prophetic signs.  This explains why some futurists believe that increasing wars, earthquakes, famines, etc. are prophetically significant, while others, like myself, do not think that they are prophetically significant, since these verses refer to global events during the seven-year tribulation.”[22]

He further says:

“I have often been ask on radio talk shows if I believe that events like earthquakes, famines, wars, etc. meant that the end is near. Of course I always say no. This usually surprises the host, since they so often hear from other prophecy teachers that these things have current prophetic significance. As you can see, if they don’t refer to the church age, then they must have reference to the tribulation. While it is likely that we stand on the verge of tribulation events, we are not yet in that time period. Since Matthew 24:4-14 cannot happen until after the rapture and the start of the tribulation, it is wrong to say that such events are prophetically significant in our own day. The birth pangs do not start until Israel faces her time of trouble.”[23]

Dr. Roy Gingrich also has a futuristic vision, understanding that verses 4-8 deal with  “the first half (3½ years) of The Seventieth Week of Daniel,”  and that the verses 9-28 deal with “the last half (3½ years) of The Seventieth Week of Daniel.”[24]  

Paul Benware also advocates a futuristic view, saying:

“The Lord is dealing with issues pertaining to Israel, not to the church. The backdrop of the Olivet Discourse is the rejection of the Messiah and the disciplining of Israel (Matthew 23) and the questions of the disciples pertaining to Jewish concerns. The disciples knew nothing (at this point) about the church age, and their questions were not about the church age. In His answer, Jesus spoke of things that involved the Jewish people, such as the Sabbath (24:20), those living in Judea (24:16), the abomination of desolation (24:15), the gospel of the kingdom (24:14), and the presence of false prophets (24:11), which would be a problem for Israel (false teachers would be a problem for the church). In light of this, we should not see the church age in the Olivet Discourse, even as some have in 24:4-8.”[25]

Mark Hitchcock, following the same line of thought Dr.Thomas Ice, see the signs described in these verses as completely future:

“It is true that many of the conditions in Matthew 24:4–14 have been present throughout the entire church age, but the general nature of these events cannot be signs of Christ’s coming. It is much more consistent to view all the events in Matthew 24:4–28 as future.”[26]

The authors of this group usually compare the signs described 4-14 with Revelation judgments. For that reason, Mark Hitchcock says that:

“Jesus’ sermon on the Mount of Olives is often called the “mini apocalypse” because it’s a compact, concise overview of what we find expanded later in the entire book of Revelation. We see this parallel between Matthew 24–25 and Revelation 6–7 clearly at this point.”[27]

Mark Hitchcock, according to the futuristic view, always speaks of the signs of verses 4-14 regarding the Tribulation period and never to our time. For example, commenting on wars and rumors of wars, he says:

“During the first part of the Tribulation, Antichrist will solve the Middle East peace problem. He will be hailed as the world’s messiah. However, in spite of his great diplomatic acumen, wars and threats of war will continue to boil over. And talk of war will fill the air.”[28]

The same futurist view on the signs, related only to Tribulation, is seen in Louis A. Barbieri commentary on Matthew, in the Bible Knowledge Commentary:

“That period will be characterized by (a) false Christs (Matt. 24:4-5; cf. Rev. 6:1-2; the first seal is Antichrist), (b) wars and rumors of wars (Matt. 24:6; cf. Rev. 6:3-4; the second seal is warfare) in which nations will rise up against each other on a global scale (Matt. 24:7a), and (c) unusual disturbances in nature including famines (v. 7b; cf. Rev. 6:5-6; the third seal is famine; the fourth and fifth seals are death and martyrdom [Rev. 6:7-11]) and earthquakes (Matt. 24:7b; cf. Rev. 6:12-14; the sixth seal is an earthquake). These things, Jesus said, will be the beginning of birth pains.”[29]

Dr. Ron Bigalke, also following a future vision, states:

“Certainly, the birth pangs in the Olivet Discourse (false messiahs, wars, famines, and earthquakes) have their precursors in the present age. [3] However, the relationship between Christ’s statements in the eschatological discourses and parallels in Revelation 6 indicates that these signs will not be fulfilled during the church age. The prophesied signs are unique to a period of which the world has never known. Since these signs are events that fit contextually within the tribulation period, they should not be cited as fulfilled (in any sense) in the current age.”[30]

Renald E. Showers equates the birth pangs “beginning of sorrows” of Mtt. 24:4-8 with the first four seals of Revelation 6:1-8 and places them during the first half of the 70th week of Daniel. He also observes that the Day of the Lord includes the notion of birth pangs (Isa. 13:6-10; 1Th. 5:3), so the first four seals are probably included within the first half of the 70th week.[31]

Harold L. Willmington in The Outline Bible puts the verses 4-14 in the first half of the Tribulation and verses 15-31 in the second half.[32]

Others autors like Warren Wiesrbe[33], William MacDonald[34], Randall Price[35] and Russell L. Penney[36] understand that verses 4-14 refer to the first half of Tribulation and verses 15-28 refer to the second half.

 

Matthew 24 - 2

 

b) Futurist Retrospective View

This is also a futuristic view because the authors interpret all the signs described in verses 4-31 as futures. However, as we shall see, these authors do not follow a chronological sequential interpretation of all these verses. According to this view, verses 4-14 are an overview of the whole Tribulation period (seven years). However, in verse 15, Jesus returns to the events of the middle of the Tribulation to give an amplified and more specific view of the second half of the Tribulation.

For example, Larry V. Crutchfield states that verses 4-14 deal with all the Tribulation period. For this author, verses 4-8 deals with the first half of the Tribulation, while verses 9-14 deals with the second half. Therefore, in verse 15, Jesus specifies what will happen in the second half of Tribulation: “Matthew 24:15-26 amplifies the period discussed in 24:9-14”.[37] He shows a clear futuristic position by stating that these signs do not deal with the period of the church, but specifically of the Tribulation Period.[38]

Mark Brailey e Tom Constable  observed that verse “ 4-8 of this chapter describe the first half of the Tribulation, and verses 9–14 describe the second half”.[39] This same view is followed by Dr. Rick Griffith.[40]

Michael G. Vanlaningham, in The Moody Bible Commentary, states that verses 4-14 summarize the entirety of the tribulation period including its end (v. 14)”. For him, the events of vv. 4-8 are part of the seal judgments early in the tribulation, while the events in verses 9-14 describe conditions that arise later in the tribulation period. Therefore, he says, “Verse 15 shifts from the end of the tribulation described in v. 14 to consider one of the key signs in the middle of the tribulation period, namely, THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION.”[41]

John F. Hart made an extensive argumentation showing how these verses should be understood as signs during the Tribulation period. In this argumentation, he also points a retrospective view in verse 15:

“From the inception of the Discourse at 24:3, Matthew depicts the future seventieth seven (week) of Daniel 9:24-27. In vv 4-14, the Lord surveys the entire seven-year tribulation period.”[42]

“Therefore, tote (―then) of v 9 is best understood as a transition to the second half of the Tribulation when Jewish believers will be hated by all nations. Verses 9- 14 reach the climax of the Tribulation as indicated by the phrase ―and then the end [to telos] will come (v 14). By the literary device of recapitulation, 24:15 returns to the midpoint of the Tribulation.”[43]

Stanley D. Toussaint seems to advocate this view, when he states:

“The presence of false messiahs, wars, and rumors of wars is so characteristic of all depraved humanity and of human history that they do not necessarily characterize the end. This may be why the Lord here uses the verb “must” (dei) in verse 6. The disciples could be misled by the turmoil of society, and even the overthrow of Jerusalem, but the world is fallen and it is therefore necessary for these things to occur. Such conduct on the part of humanity has marked history. The second time indicator, in verse 8, may look at the first half of the Tribulation period. The advance in the conditions described in verse 7 seems to parallel, at least in part, the first four seals of Revelation 6. These are the beginning of birth-pangs (Matt. 24:8). The third time marker, found in verse 14, looks back to verses 9-13. The conditions here may be a general survey of the last half of the Tribulation. From verses 15-28, the coming of the Man of Sin is contrasted with the Lord’s coming. Verses 29-31 describe the glory of His return, as verse 27 anticipates.”[44]

B. Hixson and Mark Fontecchio call verses 1-14 as “General Signs Relating to the Entire Tribulation Period.”[45] They say that verse “4-8 relate to the first half of the Tribulation and verses 9-14 refer to the second half.”[46] For them, verses 15-31 specifics signs of the second half of the Tribulation: “After this, Jesus gave more specific signs that relate to the second half of the Tribulation (Matt. 24: 15-26).” [47] To argue that verses 4-14 refers to the whole Tribulation period, they say:

“The phrase birth pains is used routinely in the Old Testament to describe the period of distress preceding the Messianic Kingdom, specifically the Tribulation (cf. Isa. 13: 8; 26: 17; Jer. 4: 31; 6: 24; Mic. 4: 9-10)… Verses 13-14 refer to the end which can only refer, in context, to the end of the Tribulation. That is, to Christ’s second coming (cf. endure to the end and then the end will come). Thus, it seems out of place to mark verse 14 as the midpoint of the Tribulation.”[48]

They also argue that that verse 14 points to the end of the period.[49] The future view of the two authors is evident when they claim: “The truth contained in the Olivet Discourse is intended to be a guide for national Israel during the Tribulation. It will be a roadmap for survival during this time.”[50]

Matthew 24 - 3

 

c) Future Signs With Present Significance

There are also authors who understand that all these signs refer to the Tribulation time, however, they have some significance for the present age. Unlike the first group, who understand that they are specific signs of the church age, this group understands that they are signs specifically to the Tribulation, yet, somehow, they have significance for our time.

David Jeremiah understands that the verses 4-31 speak of signs during the Tribulation. Therefore, his view must be considered future. However, he states:

“These ten events [4-14] are the things we can expect in embryonic form in the days preceding the Rapture and the beginning of the Tribulation. These ten things will continue to multiply and progress as the first three and one-half years of the Great Tribulation  unfold.”[51]

Ron Rhodes also believes that these signs refers to the Tribulation period, but they have some significance for the present time:

“These signs have particular relevance to the future seven-year tribulation period, but I believe that just as tremors (or foreshocks) often occur before major earthquakes, so preliminary manifestations of some of these signs may emerge prior to the tribulation period. Other people have said that prophecies cast their shadow before them. I think this is true. Prophecies that relate specifically to the tribulation are presently casting their shadow before them in our present day.”[52]

Dr. Rhodes, commenting on Terrorism, states:

“What are the ‘fearful events’ mentioned in Luke 21.11? Scriputre does not specify this for us, but the Greek phrase lireally means “terror”, “sights of terror”, or “terrifying things”. Terrorism has never been more prominent on a global basis than it is in our day. Terrorism will apparently get worse as we go into the future”.[53]

David Reagan and Nathan Jones, from Lamb and Lion Ministries, understand that the verses refer to future signs of the time of the Tribulation and define their view as futuristic (similarly to Ryrie and Mark Hitchcock). However, for them, these signs may have some significance for the present:

“There is no way these signs can be confined to the short period of the seven years of the Tribulation. They may intensify during that time, but they don’t just pop-up overnight once the Antichrist signs a treaty with Israel and the Tribulation begins.”[54]

Commenting on the earthquakes, David says:

“And that is exactly what has been happening. For example, between October of 1991 and November of 2004 — a period of 13 years — the United States experienced: 9 of the 10 largest insurance natural disasters in history. 9 of the 10 greatest disasters as ranked by FEMA relief costs. 5 of its costliest hurricanes in history. 3 of its 4 largest tornado swarms in history.”[55]

Against the argument that these events have always existed in history, David observes:

“For one thing, many people simply shrug their shoulders and say, “There have always been natural calamities, so what else is new?” Note that Jesus says these signs will be like “birth pangs” (Matthew 24:8) that is, they will increase in frequency and intensity as the time draws near for His return. In other words, there will be more intense earthquakes and more frequent ones. That is exactly what is happening today.”[56]

MacArthur makes it clear that these signs will take place during the Tribulation period. However, commenting on the events prior to verse 15, MacArthur seems to put some significance in the increasing of this signs in our time:

“As we noted above, the context indicates that these signs apply in a particular way to the Tribulation era. Yet these very evils (wars and rumors of wars, false christs, natural disasters, and persecution) are all afflictions that have characterized the whole of the Christian era. Similar features are present right now in varying degrees, and collectively they seem to be growing steadily worse and ever more prevalent, just like birth pangs.” “ That doesn’t mean the era we are living in is the one Christ describes. But it does underscore the imminency of Christ’s return for the church. The world in which we live is already ripe for the Tribulation. Elements like the birth-pang signs are already being felt. The present afflictions may merely be like Braxton-Hicks contractions—premature labor pains—but they nonetheless signify that the time for hard labor, and then delivery, is inevitable and quickly drawing near.”[57]

Commenting on the wars and rumors of war, Macarthur states:

“The subject of war will dominate public discourse. This was largely the case from the beginning to the end of the twentieth century. The entire century was dominated by talk of war—world wars, cold wars, “military actions,” civil wars, border conflicts, terrorism, and revolutions of various kinds. Even the term “peacekeeping mission” often turned out to be a euphemism for war. There will doubtless be even more of the same in the Tribulation. Again, the analogy of labor pains suggests that the talk of war will steadily increase in frequency and intensity as the return of Christ approaches.”[58]

 Matthew 24 - 4

 

Conclusion

This article aims to show how the verses 4-31 of Matthew 24 were interpreted in Dispensational tradition. Two main groups were identified: 1) Present and Future Signs and 2) Future Signs. The second group was subdivided in three sub categories: a) Futurist Chronological View, b)      Futurist Retrospective View, c) Future Signs with Present Significance.

 


Notes

[1]Walvoord, J. F. (2007; 2007). Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (183). Galaxie Software.

[2]Darby, J. N. (2008). Synopsis of the books of the Bible: Matthew to John. (171). Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[3] Quoted by Dwight Pentecost. Things to Come. Pg 278

[4] Dwight Pentecost. Things to Come. Pg 278

[5] Quoted by Walvoord, J. F. (2007; 2007). Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (183). Galaxie Software.

[6]Walvoord, J. F. (2007; 2007). Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (183). Galaxie Software.

[7] Walvoord, J. F. (2007). Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (p. 184). Galaxie Software.

[8] James F. Rand. A Survey of the Eschatology of the Olivet Discourse
Part I [8] (1956). Bibliotheca Sacra, 113(450), 164.

[9] James F. Rand. A Survey of the Eschatology of the Olivet Discourse
Part I [9] (1956). Bibliotheca Sacra, 113(450), 169.

[10] Larry D. Pettegrew. Interpretive Flaws in the Olivet Discourse. (2002). Master’s Seminary Journal, 13 (2), 175.

[11] Arnold Frunchenbaum. The Olivet Discourse. Pg 5-10

[12] John Phiplips. Exploring the Future. Pg 179-180

[13]Walvoord, J. F. (2007; 2007). Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (184). Galaxie Software.

[14] Dwight Pentecost. Things to Come. Pg 278

[15] Dwight Pentecost. Things to Come. Pg 278-279

[16]Ryrie, C. C. (1994). Ryrie study Bible: New International Version (Expanded ed.) (1504). Chicago: Moody Publishers.

[17] Merrill Unger. Manual Bíblico Unger. Pg 388

[18] Robert L. Thomas. IMMINENCE IN THE NT, ESPECIALLY PAUL’S THESSALONIAN EPISTLES. Master’s Seminary Journal, 2002, 193.

[19]Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (2:76).

[20] Louis A. Barbieri, in the Bible Knowledge Commentary. Matthew 24

[21] Thomas Ice. Na Interpretation of Matthew 24-25: Part IV. Pg 1

[22] Thomas Ice. An Interpretantion of Mathew 24-25: Part IV. Pg 1

[23] Thomas Ice. An Intepretation of Matthew 24-25: part 4. <pre-trib.org> (22/07/2015)

[24]Gingrich, R. E. (1985). The Gospel of Matthew (62). Memphis, TN.: Riverside Printing.

[25] Benware, Paul (2006-05-01). Understanding End Times Prophecy: A Comprehensive Approach (Kindle Locations 8537-8538).

[26] Hitchcock, Mark (2010-06-04). What Jesus Says about Earth’s Final Days (End Times Answers) (p. 34).

[27] Hitchcock, Mark (2010-06-04). What Jesus Says about Earth’s Final Days (End Times Answers) (p. 57). The Doubleday Religious Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

[28] Hitchcock, Mark (2010-06-04). What Jesus Says about Earth’s Final Days (End Times Answers) (p. 47). The Doubleday Religious Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

[29]Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (2:76). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

[30] Ron Bigalke. <http://www.bibleprophecyblog.com/2011/09/earthquakes-in-relation-to-birth-pangs_03.html#4.> (23/07/2015)

[31] Quoted by Anthony C. Garland. (2006; 2006). A Testimony of Jesus Christ: A Commentary on the Book of Revelation (Ap 6:1). Galaxie Software.

[32]Willmington, H. L. (1999). The Outline Bible (Mt 24:14). Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers.

[33] Warren Wiesbie. Be Loyal: Matthew. In Loco (Quick Verse)

[34] William MacDonald. Comentário Bíblico Popular: Novo Testamento. Pg 87-89

[35] Randall Price. Entendendo O Sermão Profético. Disponível em: <http://www.chamada.com.br/mensagens/sermao _profetico.html> (20/03/2013)

[36] . Vol. 1: Conservative Theological Journal Volume 1. 1997 (1) (53). Fort Worth, TX: Tyndale Theological Seminary.

[37] Larry V. Crutchfield  in Dictionarry of Premillennial Theology. Olivet Discourse. Pg 287

[38] Larry V. Crutchfield  in Dictionarry of Premillennial Theology. Olivet Discourse. Pg 287

[39] Bailey, Mark; Tom Constable (2009-09-01). Nelson’s New Testament Survey (pp. 49-50).

[40] Rick Griffith. Eschatology. Pg 109

[41] Michael G. Vanlaningham in“The Moody Bible Commentary”. Matthew 24

[42] John F. Hart.Should Pretribulationists Reconsider the Rapture in Matthew 24:36-44?” in Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society Autumn 2007. Pg 54

[43] John F. Hart.Should Pretribulationists Reconsider the Rapture in Matthew 24:36-44?” in Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society Autumn 2007. Pg 57

[44] Thomas Ice;Timothy J. Demy. The Return: Understanding Christ’s Second Coming and the End Times (Kindle Location 1444). Kindle Edition.

[45] Hixson, J.B.; Fontecchio, Mark (2013-03-01). What Lies Ahead: A Biblical Overview of the End Times (Kindle Location 4642).

[46] Hixson, J.B.; Fontecchio, Mark (2013-03-01). What Lies Ahead: A Biblical Overview of the End Times (Kindle Location 4657).

[47] Hixson, J.B.; Fontecchio, Mark (2013-03-01). What Lies Ahead: A Biblical Overview of the End Times (Kindle Location 4657).

[48]Hixson, J.B.; Fontecchio, Mark (2013-03-01). What Lies Ahead: A Biblical Overview of the End Times (Kindle Locations 4673-4680).

[49] Hixson, J.B.; Fontecchio, Mark (2013-03-01). What Lies Ahead: A Biblical Overview of the End Times (Kindle Locations 4702-4704).

[50] Hixson, J.B.; Fontecchio, Mark (2013-03-01). What Lies Ahead: A Biblical Overview of the End Times (Kindle Locations 4654-4655).

[51] Jeremiah, David (2010-06-15). The Prophecy Answer Book (Kindle Location 605)..

[52] Ron Rhodes. The End in Chronological Order. Pg 100

[53] Ron Rhodes. The End in Chronological Order. Pg 100

[54] David Reagan. The Olivet Discourse. http://www.lamblion.com/articles/articles_issues5.php (22/07/2015)

[55] Reagan, David (2014-01-08). Living on Borrowed Time: The Imminent Return of Jesus (Kindle Locations 679-681).

[56] David Reagan. An Overview of The Signs of the Times. <http://www.lamblion.com/articles/articles_signs1.php> (22/07/15)

[57] MacArthur, John (2006-01-09). The Second Coming: Signs of Christ’s Return and the End of the Age (p. 81).

[58] MacArthur, John (2006-01-09). The Second Coming: Signs of Christ’s Return and the End of the Age (p. 83).


Author: Leonardo Costa